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 dental Paths Summary شرح موجز لبعض المصطلحات السنية

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الرتبة : ادارة الموقع
عدد المساهمات : 1209
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تاريخ الميلاد : 29/05/1988
تاريخ التسجيل : 20/12/2010
العمر : 29
المزاج المزاج : مزاج طبيب أسنان ممارس

مُساهمةموضوع: dental Paths Summary شرح موجز لبعض المصطلحات السنية    11/08/13, 04:41 am

Abrasion

The wearing away of tooth substance through an abnormal mechanical process, such as tooth grinding, clenching or over-brushing with a hard toothbrush.

Abscess

Localised oral inflammation in the bone , tooth or gum, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Tooth abscesses commonly occur at the end of the root tip and can be the result of decay, trauma or severe gum disease. Symptoms can include pain and/or swelling.

Abutment
[align=left]
Retainer tooth/teeth or implants that are used to support a bridge
[/align].
Acrylic

[align=left]A plastic type material used to make artificial teeth, dentures and other dental [/align](orthodontic) appliances.

Air Abrasion



The use of air and an abrasive (usually tiny particles of sodium bicarbonate or aluminium oxide) blasted in a stream of water to remove tooth structure or surface staining depending upon the particulate stream used.

Alginate

A soft rubber-like compound (derived from seaweed) used to take impressions of patient's teeth and oral structures.

Alveolar Bone

The bone surrounding the roots of teeth.

Alveoloplasty

A procedure used to reshape the remaining alveolar bone in bone-grafting procedures or to prepare for a complete/partial denture.

Amalgam

Most common silver-coloured filling, consisting of a mix of mercury, silver, tin and copper. Amalgam is relatively inexpensive and easy to place.

Analgesia

A state of reduced sensitivity to pain whilst a subject is fully conscious.

Anatomy

The study of the structure of the body and the relationship between its constituent parts (organs, bones, blood vessels, tissues etc).

Anaesthesia

Total/partial loss or absence of feeling produced by disease or by the inhalation/injection of an anaesthetic agent.

Anaesthetic

A medication that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations. Can be applied locally or generally.

Anterior

Pertaining to the front. Central incisors, lateral incisors, canines and premolar Teeth.

Antibiotic

A drug that has the capacity to kill bacteria. Used for the treatment of infections.

Antibiotic Prophylaxis

The administration of antibiotics to a patient pre-operatively, to reduce the risk of causing bacterial endocarditis, which can be a life-threatening inflammation of the endocardium, the membrane lining the cavities of the heart.

Antiseptic

A substance that inhibits the growth of germs.

ANUG (Acute Necrotising Ulcerative Gingivitis)

Otherwise known as trench mouth or Vincent's disease. It is a bacterial infection and ulceration of the gum tissue between teeth, caused by poor dental hygiene and more commonly found in smokers. Antibiotic therapy or minor surgery may be necessary to treat this condition.

Apex

Pertaining to the tip/end of the tooth root.

Apicectomy

A minor surgical procedure to remove the tip/end of the tooth root to eliminate the source of infection.

Arch

Pertaining to the curved nature of the upper and lower jaws. The two arches in the oral cavity are the maxilla and mandible.

Articulator

A mechanical device that holds models of a patients teeth in the same position as they lie in the mouth so that a dentist can study the bite relationship and jaw movements.

Asepsis

The state of being germ free.

Aspirator

A suction appliance that the dentist places in a patient's mouth to remove saliva, water and dental debris during dental procedures.

Attrition

The wearing away of tooth substance due to activities such as chewing and grinding.

Autoclave

A device used to sterilise instruments or materials.

B

Baby Teeth

A child's first set of teeth that are progressively replaced by permanent teeth. Also known as primary, deciduous or milk teeth. Usually twenty in number.

Base

Part of a denture that is supported by the alveolar ridge and carries the artificial teeth or a lining material applied under a filling to decrease sensitivity to heat or cold by insulating the pulp (tooth nerve).

Bicuspid

[align=left](See Premolar) [/align]
Biomechanics
[align=left]
Pertaining to the relationship between the forces applied during movement of living tissue, teeth and their related structures. [/align]
Bite
[align=left]
How the upper and lower teeth come together when the mouth is closed. Also known as occlusion.[/align]
Bitewing X-rays
[align=left]
X-ray view showing the coronal (above gum line) portion of the upper and lower teeth on the same film[/align].
Bleaching
[align=left]
Pertaining to the whitening of teeth with chemical agents.[/align]
Bonding
[align=left]
Pertaining to the adhesion of materials to teeth for such procedures used to repair and/or change the colour or shape of a tooth. The process of attaching brackets (part of braces) to teeth using a dental adhesive for orthodontic treatment.[/align]
Bone Loss
[align=left]
Pertaining to the loss of bone that supports the roots of teeth. Bone loss can result from gum disease/infections or occlusal stress. It can also be (rarely) the result of tumorous growths[/align].
Bone Resorption
[align=left]
The gradual loss of bone, following tooth extraction. [/align]
Braces
[align=left]
Pertaining to an orthodontic appliance that corrects dental irregularities (over crowding or spacing). [/align]
Bridge
[align=left]
Pertaining to a permanent prosthetic replacement of one or more missing teeth. Bridges span the space between teeth and are secured in place by cementation to abutment teeth or implants adjacent to the space.
Bruxism
[/align]

[align=left]
The involuntary/subconscious clenching and grinding of teeth, most commonly during slee[/align]p.
Buccal
[align=left]
The surface of a tooth that faces and is closest to the inside of the cheek.
C
[/align]

Calcium


[align=left]
An essential element found in teeth, bones and nerves.
[/align]
[align=left]
[align=left]Calculus[/align]
[/align]
[align=left]


Mineralised plaque that forms at the gum/tooth margin, it is also known as tartar. Inadequate oral hygiene is the main reason for calculus formation.
[/align]
[align=left]
[align=left]Canal[/align]
[/align]

Pertains to the root canal, which is a duct within the tooth root, containing nerves and blood vessels.
[align=left]Canine[/align]

[align=left]
Commonly a pointed tooth located between the incisors and the first premolar. The third tooth from the middle of the jaw otherwise known as the eye tooth[/align].
[align=left]Canker Sore[/align]

[align=left]
A type of mouth ulcer often caused by viral infection. Usually self limiting and resolve within fourteen days.[/align]
[align=left]Cantilever Bridge[/align]


A fixed bridge that attaches to only one tooth, adjacent to a tooth space.
[align=left]Cap[/align]

[align=left]
A common term for a crown restoration.[/align[align=left]
]
Caries[/align]

[align=left]
Tooth decay by the progressive breakdown and dissolution of the tooth structure by acid. This is produced by bacteria when they digest dietary sugars. [/align]
[align=left]Cast[/align]

[align=left]
Pertaining to a plaster model of teeth.
[/align]
[align=left]
Cavitron
[/align]
[align=left]
A dental implement that uses ultrasonic (high-frequency sound waves) to clean teeth.
[/align]
[align=left]
[align=left]Cavity[/align]
[/align]
[align=left]
Tooth decay leading to a hole in a tooth.
[/align]
[align=left]
[align=left]Cellulitis[/align]
[/align]
[align=left]
Commonly caused by the infection of a wound by various bacteria. An inflammation of the deeper layers of the skin (subcutaneous) and sometimes muscle, which can be as a result of abscess formation. Symptoms include fever, swelling, redness and pain. [/align]
Cement


Pertaining to adhesive materials used to hold crowns, bridges and certain appliances in place.

Cementation


[align=left]The process of "gluing" the appliance/prosthesis in-situ. [/align]

Cementum




Two front teeth at the midline in both the upper and lower dental arches.

Cephalometric X-Rays


An X-ray view from the lateral aspect of the head that allows the dentist to study the alignment of the teeth, jaws and associated skeletal structures. Used primarily by orthodontists to diagnose and plan treatment

Chlorhexidine


An anti-microbial agent available as oral rinses and oral gels. It can be an effective agent in controlling gum disease.

Clasp


Pertaining to a specific component that is used to hold a removable dental prosthesis in place (partial dentures or removable orthodontic appliances).

Clenching


When the upper and lower teeth are forcibly held together.
[align=left]Cold sore[/align]


Herpes simplex infection resulting in an ulcer or blister on the lip.

Composite Filling

[align=left]
[align=left]A tooth-coloured filling material.[/align]
Cosmetic Dentistry

Dental treatment that is solely applied to improve the aesthetic appearance of the teeth.
Cross-bite

When the normal bite relationship between upper and lower teeth is reversed. This can be uni/bi lateral and can also occur in the front teeth. The lower teeth/tooth align toward the cheek/ lip side more than the upper teeth/tooth.
Crown

Pertaining to a type of restoration that covers all of a decayed/damaged or heavily filled tooth. Crowns are usually made of gold, porcelain or a combination of both and are used when a tooth cannot be restored with a filling. Also a term for the portion of the tooth above the gum level covered by enamel.
Crown Lengthening

A surgical procedure used to expose more tooth surface commonly achieved by cutting away any associated gum from around a tooth.
Curettage

Pertaining to a procedure that entails the scraping of the gums or other diseased tissue (bone) to remove bacteria and any associated infected tissue.
Cuspids

(see canines)
Cusps

Pertaining to the high points on the biting or chewing surfaces of the canines, premolars or molars.
Cyst

An encased infection consisting of fluid or semi-solid material.

[عزيزي الزائر يتوجب عليك التسجيل للمشاهدة الرابطللتسجيل اضغط هنا]
D

Decalcification

Pertaining to the loss of calcium from teeth making them weaker and more susceptible to decay.
Decay

(See caries)
Deciduous Teeth

(See baby teeth)
Dental Floss

A waxed or unwaxed piece of nylon thread which can be inserted between the teeth and moved in an up/down fashion to clean them (used to remove food particles or plaque from between the teeth).
Dental Hygienist

A trained person employed to provide treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases by the prescription of a dental surgeon. Treatment includes scaling and polishing in the dental surgery.
Dental Implant

A prosthetic device usually made of titanium that is implanted into the jaw bone to replace an absent tooth root. It can be used to anchor an artificial tooth, crown, bridge or denture.
Dentine

Inner mineralised layer of a tooth. The crown portion is covered with enamel and the root portion with cementum.
Dentistry

A branch of medicine that involves diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of any disease related to teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures. Performed by a licensed dental surgeon.
Dentition

The dentition is the teeth and their arrangement in the mouth and may consist of primary teeth/permanent teeth or a combination of both.
Denture

A prosthetic replacement for all or some (full or partial denture respectively) of the teeth in either the upper or lower jaw. This artificial set of teeth is removable.
Desensitisation

Pertaining to a procedure to reduce the sensitivity of teeth. It may be achieved by applying topical agents, root-treating teeth or treatment with lasers.
Diagnosis

Pertaining to the process of identifying dental disease.
Diastema

A space between two teeth. Midline/central diastema refers to a space between the two front teeth.
Digital Radiography

The creation and storage of computer generated images of teeth rather than with traditional radiographic films.
Direct Pulp Cap

A procedure where a medicated dental dressing/cement is applied to an exposed pulp. This will insulate and protect the pulp and promote healing and repair via formation of secondary dentine.
Distal

Pertaining to the position of a tooth surface furthest away from the midline (junction between central incisors) of the mouth.
Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS)

One of the accredited degrees that is attained by dental school graduates.
Drift

Pertaining to the movement of teeth. This movement is uncontrolled and irregular.
Dry Socket

A localised inflammation of the tooth socket after extraction. The symptoms include severe pain, foul odour/taste.

[عزيزي الزائر يتوجب عليك التسجيل للمشاهدة الرابطللتسجيل اضغط هنا]
E

Edentulous

Area in which teeth are absent. This may include an entire dental arch or both dental arches.
Enamel

The outer mineralised surface of the coronal portion of the tooth (crown).
Endodontics

Root canal treatment is the most common procedure in this field of dentistry. It deals with conditions of the dental pulp and its associated periapical area.
Endodontist

A dental surgeon who specialises in the treatment of conditions related to the pulp and associated root canals.
Eruption

Pertaining to the breaking through and becoming visible of the teeth into the mouth.
Excision

Pertaining to the surgical removal of bone or tissues related to the oral structures.
Exostosis

Pertaining to a bony growth or projection on the surface of a bone in the oral cavity.
Extraction

Pertaining to the removal of a tooth. This procedure is utilised when a tooth is severely decayed, broken, loose or causing crowding. Extraction of a tooth is a minor oral surgical procedure which may vary in degree or complexity.
Extraoral

Pertaining to the outside of the mouth (beyond the lips).
Extrusion

Pertaining to tooth movement in the direction of eruption. The tooth is mechanically pulled with an orthodontic appliance so that it extends further out of the gum.
Eyetooth

(see Canine)





taken.... to be continued[/align]
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