Radiographs are the most important Diagnostic aids in Dental
practice using the help of which dentists decide the Treatment plan and
can consider various options.


In Oral Surgery Radiographs play a vital role in determining the treatment plan.
Various Radiographic Techniques used in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and their Uses:

  1. Intraoral periapical View
  2. Occlusal View
  3. Orthopantamographs:
  4. Lateral Oblique View
  5. Water’s view or Occipitomental View
  6. Trans Orbital View
  7. Trans Cranial View
  8. Lateral Cephalogram
  9. Postero-Anterior view of Skull
  10. Sub-Mento Vertex View (Jug handle view)
  11. Chest X-ray
  12. Tomogram
Intraoral periapical View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
This Radiographic View is used whenthe following anatomic structures are to be considered fro treatment:

  • Third Molar
  • Periapical View of all the teeth in both the arches
  • Periapical view of maxillary sinus relation to the teeth
  • Fractured root apices
  • dentoalveolar fractures
Occlusal View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
This the radiographic technique where the view is occlusal and the structures seen are:

  • Mandibular floor of the mouth
  • Lingual aspect of the mandibular lower arch contour and continuity of the Upper Arch
  • Palatine Tori
  • Tumors of the Mandibular arch
  • To Locate the presence of foreign bodies in the lower arch
  • To confirm the presence of exact position of the foreign body weather Buccal or Lingual
  • To determine bucco lingual position of impacted tooth
  • To determine expansion of cortical plate
  • Evaluation of fracture of jaws with displacement
Orthopantamograph structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
With this radiograph you can view both the mandibular and maxillary
arches which will be shown in buccal view and the following structures
can be viewed with this radiograph:

  • Temporo Mandibular Joint
  • Posterior and Anterior Border Of Ramus
  • Ramus of Mandible
  • Angle of Mandible
  • Body Of Mandible
  • Continuity of inferior border of Mandible
  • Pterygomandibular fissures
  • Maxillary Tuberosity
  • Maxillary Sinuses
  • Teeth
  • Will be very helpful in determining the fractures in Ramus, angle and body of mandible
Lateral Oblique View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

  • Mandibular Ramus Projection demonstrates mandibular Ramus from angle to condyle
  • Third molars of maxilla and mandible
  • Mandibular body projection demonstrates the premolar – molar region and inferior border of mandible
Water’s view or Occipitomental View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
This Radiographic view gives you a very detailed view of all the
sinuses, introduced by Water hence named Water’s view. The various
structures which can be viewed are:

  • Maxillary Sinus
  • Frontal Sinus
  • Ethmoidal Sinus
  • Frontozygomatic suture
  • Infra and supra orbital rims
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Position of coronoid process of mandible between maxilla and zygomatic arch
Trans Orbital View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
Also called as Zimmer or Transmaxillary projection which is mainly
concentrating on the TMJ. The following structures are visible.

  • Mandibular condylar neck
  • Used for diagnosis of Sub-condylar fractures
  • Latero medial articulating surfaces of the condyle and articular eminence and condylar neck can be seen
Trans Cranial View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
The structures which can be seen to determine the treatment plan are:

  • Glenoid Fossa
  • Articular Eminence
  • Condylar head
  • The relation of Articular eminence to Condylar head
  • This technique is taken in 2 aspects one with clsed mouth and the other with an open mouth to determine
  • *TMJ joint internal derangements
  • TMJ Dislocation and
  • TMJ Subluxation
Lateral Cephalogram structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
It is a technique where the radiograph is taken from the side to view the following structures:

  • Skull
  • Facial Bones
  • Paranasal Sinus
  • Hard Palate
  • Nasopharyngeal tissue
  • Soft Tissue Orifices of Face
Postero-Anterior view of Mandible structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
The structures seen are

  • Body of mandible
  • Inferior and Anterior vorder of Ramus
  • Condylar Neck
  • Nasal Cavity
Postero-Anterior view of Skull structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

  • Skull
  • Frontal Sinus
  • Ethoidal Sinuses
  • Nasal Fossa
  • Orbits
Sub-Mento Vertex View (Jug handle view) structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:
The various structes which can be viewed to proceed with the treatment plan are:

  • Base of Skull
  • Position and orientation od condyle
  • Sphenoid sinus
  • Inferior border of mandible
  • Lateral wall of maxillary sinus
  • Zygomatic arch
  • Lateral pterygoid plates
  • Foramina at the base of skull