Xerostomia, more commonly known as dry mouth, is
not a disease in itself. Rather, it is a symptom of many other diseases
and conditions. These conditions cause saliva production to decrease or
stop. Saliva moistens your mouth and helps you to swallow and taste
food. It also is a natural cavity fighter. For example, it washes away
food and plaque from the teeth. It helps to neutralize acids in the
mouth that harm tooth enamel.
If you have less saliva in your mouth, your teeth and gums are at
increased risk of tooth decay.* People with xerostomia also are more
likely to get illnesses that affect the soft tissues of the mouth, such
as yeast infections (thrush). In addition, your diet may be affected
because you cannot taste food as you normally would.
Xerostomia may occur for several reasons. Some common causes include:

  • A side effect of medicine
    — Hundreds of drugs can cause dry mouth. These include pain relievers
    and medicines for depression, cold symptoms and allergies. Medicines are
    the most common cause of xerostomia. Older people often take many
    medicines, including those most likely to cause dry mouth. For this
    reason, they have an especially high rate of dry mouth. Some of the
    drugs which cause dry mouth are Tricyclic antidepressants,
    antihistamines, anti hypertensives and Diuretics.
  • A complication of diseases and infections — Several diseases
    are associated with dry mouth. They include diabetes, anemia, cystic
    fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure and HIV infection.
    Xerostomia also occurs with Sjogren’s syndrome. In this disease, the
    body’s antibodies attack the salivary and tear glands. Some viral
    infections, such as mumps, also affect saliva production and cause
  • Dehydration — Any condition that leads to loss of body
    fluids can also cause xerostomia. These conditions include fever,
    excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss or loss of water
    through the skin after a burn.
  • Radiation therapy — Xerostomia is a common side effect of radiation therapy to treat cancers in the head, neck, adn thyroid cancers.
  • Sjogrens syndrome.
  • Poorly controlled Diabetes
  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Thyroid Diorders

  • Surgical removal of the salivary glands — If a mass develops in a salivary gland, surgical removal of the gland may be recommended.
Although xerostomia is a symptom, it often occurs along with other symptoms. These may include:

  • Frequent thirst
  • Burning or tingling sensation, especially on the tongue
  • Red, raw tongue
  • Sores in mouth or at corners of lips
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Problems with taste
  • Sore throat and hoarseness
  • Bad Breath
  • Problems with speech
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Dry nasal passages
  • Dry, cracked lips
  • Increase in dental problems, such as caries.
  • Difficulty wearing dentures
  • Repeated yeast infections in the mouth
  • Risk of caries
  • Risk of Periodontal diseases
Xerostomia is a symptom, not a disease. Tell your dentist and hygienist
about your dry mouth. Your dentist will ask you about your medical
history and your symptoms. And the dentist will ask about any drugs you
are taking. This includes prescription. The dentist also will examine
your mouth. He or she will assess the flow of saliva and look for
cracks, sores, and signs of cavities and gum disease.
As i always say that,
“Prevention is better than cure”
To prevent dry mouth, avoid things that cause it, if possible. For
example, if dry mouth is related to a medicine, your physician may be
able to prescribe a drug that causes less dryness. You also can take
steps to prevent or manage the symptoms of dry mouth.
The treatment of xerostomia focuses on three areas:

  • Relieving symptoms
  • Preventing tooth decay
  • Increasing the flow of saliva, if possible
Your doctor will recommend that you practice good dental hygiene.
This means that you should brush and floss properly. You also should
have regular dental visits. In the office, your dentist or hygienist
also will regularly apply flouride to your teeth. Your physician may
work with your dentist to manage your condition.
Treatment is based on how severe your problem is and what caused it.
Fluoride treatments can be prescribed to help prevent cavities.
Artificial saliva is available over the counter as a rinse, spray or
gel. Depending on your medical condition and diagnosis, a doctor may
prescribe a drug that causes more saliva to be released.
Here are some simple tips which might help you, try the following:

  • Drink water often to keep your mouth moist. Carry water with you. Sip it throughout the day. Keep water by your bed at night.
  • Suck on sugar-free hard candies, ice chips or sugar-free ice pops.
    Some doctors believe sugary candies are as likely as dry mouth to cause
  • If you chew gum, try sugarless gum.
  • Use an over-the-counter oral moisturizer or saliva substitute.
  • Use mouth rinses or mouthwashes that do not contain alcohol.
  • Avoid salty foods, dry foods (crackers, cookies, toast) and foods and beverages with high sugar contents.
  • Avoid drinks containing alcohol or caffeine. These increase water loss by triggering frequent urination.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • To minimize irritation of dry tissues, use a moisturizer on your lips and a soft-bristle toothbrush on your teeth and gums